Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes. Phosphatidylethanolamines in food break down to form phosphatidylethanolamine-linked Amadori products as a part of the Maillard reaction. These products accelerate membrane lipid peroxidation, causing oxidative stress to cells that come in contact with them. Oxidative stress is known to cause food deterioration. Significant levels of Amadori-phosphatidylethanolamine products have been found in a wide variety of foods such as chocolate, soybean milk, infant formula, and other processed foods. The levels of Amadori-phosphatidylethanolamine products are higher in foods with high lipid and sugar concentrations that have high temperatures in processing.
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